DOI: https://doi.org/10.22141/2306-2436.6.1-2.2017.122106

The palliative care and euthanasia: medical and social, bioethical, legal aspects

Yu.I. Gubsky, A.V. Tsarenko

Abstract


The article analyzes a scientific literature, international and national normative and legal documents, medical and statistical data that determine the topicality of the problem, and medical-social, bioethical, legal aspects of euthanasia and palliative and hospice care (PHC) as an alternative to euthanasia. Objective: To present an analysis of the situation in Ukraine and worldwide on regulatory assessment and public attitudes to euthanasia and its alternatives – PHC, strategies and approaches to the PHC service development within to reform the of the Public Health System in Ukraine. Materials research. The material for the study presented in the article are WHO documents and the international organizations, legislation of Ukraine, the domestic and foreign scientific literature, international and domestic legal documents relating euthanasia and PHC, medical statistics and reports of the State Statistics Committee and Ministry of Health of Ukraine. Research methods. The authors used the following methods: information-analytical, bibliosemantyc, systematic approach, structural and logical analysis and comparative content analysis. Results and discussion. Effective and accessible the PHC system using a multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach can adequately respond and meet the needs of palliative patients and their families, which helps to ensure proper quality of life and reduces the desire to palliative patients on the application of euthanasia. It defines the great medical and social, economic and humanitarian values of PHC – this innovative Health Care and Social Welfare approach, which is an important component of Public Health System reform in Ukraine. The most important are international regulations that say inalienable human rights and which, in terms of most lawyers, prohibiting euthanasia, although euthanasia is in legalization and using in some countries. The law clearly prohibits euthanasia in Ukraine. Conclusions. 1. The ensuring the maximum attainable quality of life level for palliative patients with limited life expectancy forecast in the last decade is a major humanitarian problem of modern society, due to the adverse medical and demographic processes, including the populations aging and mortality from chronic non-communicable diseases increased. 2. The above situation requires the optimal organization and development of modern efficient and accessible of PHC System, which is an innovative medical and social multidisciplinary approach that most adequately meets the requirements and adequate quality of life of palliative patients and their families, contributes to the preservation of human dignity at the end of life. 3. In accordance with modern international concepts and standards, PHC is required to provide four components: medical, psychological, social and spiritual. 4. Today, the most important are international regulations that say inalienable human rights and which, in terms of most lawyers, prohibiting euthanasia, although in some countries there is a tendency to euthanasia legalize and use. 5. Existing law clearly prohibits an euthanasia in Ukraine. 6. The above situation requires the creation and development efficient and effective PHC System as an euthanasia alternative in Ukraine.

Keywords


euthanasia; the Palliative and Hospice Care System; palliative patients quality of life; regulatory and legal base; medico-social; bioethical; legal aspects of euthanasia; reforming of the Health Care System

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